It happens in bacteria and some species in a pure manner. Transformation is also brought about be artificial ways. Estrogen Biohacking that bear the capacity of undergoing transformation either by their own or by artificial means are termed as capable. Genetic material can be exchanged between two different bacterial cells either by conjugation or transduction. Conjugation involves direct transfer of genetic material from one cell to another through contact. In the process of transduction bacteriophages are proven to move the foreign genetic material into the host cell. Introduction of the international DNA into the eukaryotic cells is known as transfection. Transduction can also be utilized as a tool for the introduction of foreign DNA into a non-bacterial mobile that might be a plant cell or an animal cell.

Transformation was initially demonstrated through an English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 who had been searching for a vaccine against bacterial pneumonia. He discovered a benign strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae could be made virulent if subjected to the warmth killed virulent strains. He guessed that there’s some shifting variable present that has the capacity for making the benign and non-virulent strain to become virulent and harmful. They isolated the DNA from the virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and with the help of this genetic material they were able to make the benign non-virulent strain. They called this uptake and incorporation of DNA by the germs as transforamation. Transformation did not become the normal process until 1972 when Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu successfully transformed Escherichia coli by fixing the bacteria with calcium chloride. They made an efficient and suitable process that became a landmark in the field of biotechnology and research.

Transformation by using electroporation was designed from the late 1980s when the efficiency and the amount of bacterial cells can be raised via transformation. Transformation of plant cell and animal cell was also started and the first transgenic mouse was created in 1982. In 1907 a bacterium called as Agrobacterium tumefaciens was discovered which was responsible for causing tumors at the plants and the tumor inducing agent was discovered to be DNA plasmid called Ti-plasmid. Bacterial transformation could be predicted as a stable genetic change caused by uptake of foreign DNA and proficiency might be defined as the condition of having the ability to take the exogenous DNA from the environment. Competence may be natural or artificial. About 1% of the bacterial population can spend the DNA naturally under the laboratory conditions and many more species have been known to carry up the foreign DNA within their normal environment. These bacteria take a set of genes that provide the protein machines to bring the DNA throughout the cell membrane.